Of the Good and Evil of Human Acts, in General
We must now consider the good and evil of human acts. First, how a human act is good or evil; secondly, what results from the good or evil of a human act, as merit or demerit, sin and guilt.Under the first head there will be a threefold consideration: the first will be of the good and evil of human acts, in general; the second, of the good and evil of internal acts; the third, of the good and evil of external acts.Concerning the first there are eleven points of inquiry:
- Whether every human action is good, or are there evil actions?
- Whether the good or evil of a human action is derived from its object?
- Whether it is derived from a circumstance?
- Whether it is derived from the end?
- Whether a human action is good or evil in its species?
- Whether an action has the species of good or evil from its end?
- Whether the species derived from the end is contained under the species derived from the object, as under its genus, or conversely?
- Whether any action is indifferent in its species?
- Whether an individual action can be indifferent?
- Whether a circumstance places a moral action in the species of good or evil?
- Whether every circumstance that makes an action better or worse, places the moral action in the species of good or evil?